There’s no question that secure communications is critical. On the web, this is done using HTTPS. HTTPS is secure extension of the HTTP. In HTTPS, communications is encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS), or its deprecated predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
TLS uses a public key encryption scheme where you have a public and private key pair. The web server provides they public key which the web browser can use to encrypt communications with. The public key is signed to certify the identity of the web server owning the key. This gives you the public key certificate or just simply certificate.
You can self-sign (or self-certify) just so you can encrypt communications and that’s fine if your dealing with yourself or parties who trust you and your self-signed certificate (e.g. your own systems or employees). But if you deal with other parties (e.g. other systems or customers) you need a certificate from a certificate authority (CA), a trusted entity that signs keys and issues certificates.
Let’s Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority brought to you by the non-profit Internet Security Research Group (ISRG). They provide certificates absolutely free. The certificates expire in 90 days, but they can be automatically renewed using Certbot. There’s simply no excuse not to have a secure site. And it’s so easy to boot. There are step-by-step instructions for almost every web server and operating system combination at the Certbot page.
Here are the steps for getting certificates using Ubuntu and Apache:
Add the Certbot apt repository
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:certbot/certbot
Update the repository
sudo apt-get update
Install Certbot from the new repository with apt-get:
This give your certificates for your new files and configures Apache automatically. But you should be able to find the certificate files for other purposes (see below) at /etc/letsencrypt/live/example.com
The certificate only last for 90 days. However, Certbot takes care of this problem by running certbot renew twice a day via a systemd timer or cron. We can also manually test renewal:
If you have many toy quads or if you are into Silverware, you probably know about or even use the IRX6 or MTX9D multiprotocol modules.
These modules allow you to bind to and control many toy quads. And theyâ€™re quite cheap. But they have a major limitation: poor range. So we will build a better but still-affordable NRF24 multiprotocol module.
But the most important component is the excellent NRF24 multiprotocol firmware for the Arduino by Goebish. This project wouldn’t have been possible without his firmware and his help and guidance. Thanks, Goebish!
Additionally, the 3.3V out pin of the Arduino nano does not have enough power for this RF module so you will need a separate 3.3V power module to power the RF module
Finally, the PPM signal voltage output from some transmitters may be too high for the Arduino Nano, so to be safe you need a 10k ohm resistor in-line with the PPM signal wire. This give you input voltage protection up to +15.5VDC and down to -10.5VDC. More info here.
Wire according to the diagram below.
Upload the NRF24 multiprotocol firmware to the Arduino Nano.
Connect the power, ground, and PPM lines to your TX.
Create a model on your TX with PPM output
While holding the appropriate stick pattern, power up your TX. Last used protocol is automatically selected if stick is in neutral position so thereâ€™s usually no need to do this every time.
Release the stick(s).
Arm if necessary
Thatâ€™s it. You now have a budget multiprotocol module with longer range.
I’ve already written a few guides on building whoops (here, here, and here) so this is more a companion article to my YouTube video on the same subject. The other objective is to build a lightweight whoop.
Makerfire Armor 65 Lite outdoor flight. There was a light breeze coming from Taal but it handled pretty well.
The Armor 65 Lite is a ready-to-fly FPV racing nano quadcopter thatâ€™s great for kids and adults alike, for the beginner to intermediate and even all the way to the advanced pilot. It comes already pre-flashed with Silverware acro firmware, equipped with a 800TVL camera, tough Armor 65 frame, and powerful 17600KV 7x16mm motors. No need to upgrade anytime soon.
The all new Armor 65 Lite is a ready-to-fly FPV racing nano quadcopter thatâ€™s great for kids and adults alike, for the beginner to intermediate and even all the way to the advanced pilot. It comes already equipped with a 800TVL camera, tough Armor 65 frame, and powerful 17600KV 7x16mm motors. No need to upgrade anytime soon.
Best of all, it comes pre-flashed with Silverware. Silverware is an open-source flight controller firmware developed by SilverXXX for F0 FCs. It was forked and further refined by NotFastEnuf.
It utilizes the high-speed BayangToys protocol. A transmitter is already included but you can choose to use multiprotocol transmitters or modules such as the Jumper T8/12, Devo 7e/10 with DeviationTX, and iRangeX IRX4/6, and MTX-9D.
This is not your average toy quadcopter converted to a whoop. This is a purposely designed and built whoop. And its purpose is FUN!